Baking and Bread Improvers
Enzymes in Bread Making – In bread production, a knowledge of both the alpha-amylase content and the water absorption of the flour is essential. Heavy rainfall and high humidity at the time of harvesting leads to preharvest sprouting, and the synthesis of amylase. High levels of this enzyme in flour leads to excessive starch dextrinisation in the baking process, which results in a sticky loaf, which is difficult to slice. Water added to flour is absorbed by protein, pentosans and starch. The major variable affecting water absorption is the level of damaged starch granules which are produced during the milling of the grain.In modern baking practices the endogenous flour enzymes are commonly supplemented with enzymes of microbial origin e.g. α-Amylase, xylanase, and in some cases, proteases. Xylanase, through the modification of wheat flour arabinoxylans, can give up to a 10% increase in loaf volume. Proteases can be added to soften, particularly tough (bucky) glutens. However, high protease levels will destroy the gluten properties.
Xylazyme AX finds widespread application in the measurement of xylanase in wheat flours and bread improvers mixtures. alpha-Amylase is routinely measured using Ceralpha: α-amylase assay reagent. The need for rapid and simple procedures for the measurement of protease in bread improvers mixtures led to the development, by Megazyme, of Protazyme AK Tablets and Azo-Casein (which is far superior to the Azo-Casein currently commercially available from other suppliers).
|Analyte||Cat. No.||Analyte Significance||Advantages of Megazyme Test Kits|
|Common food component||K-ACETAK (auto) / K-ACETRM (manual) are very rapid acetate kinase (AK) based kits with excellent linearity.
K-ACETGK is a new rapid, auto-analyser assay kit employing AK and phosphotransacetylase. Stable reagents
|Ammonia||K-AMIAR||Common food component||K-AMIAR has a very rapid reaction rate (~ 3 min at room temperature). Manual and auto-analyser applications|
|Amylose / Amylopectin||K-AMYL||Ratio of these components affects the rate of digestion and utilisation of starch||Novel kit, stable reagents|
|L-Asparagine / L-Glutamine / Ammonia||K-ASNAM||Acrylamide precursors in the production of fried, roasted, toasted potato or other food products||Novel product, enabling all three analytes to be determined in less than 20 min.
Manual and microplate format procedures given
|L-Ascorbic Acid||K-ASCO||Naturally found in fruits and vegetables, or supplemented in processed foods||Rapid reaction, stable reagents|
|Available Carbohydrates / Dietary Fiber||K-ACHDF||Sugars rapidly digested and absorbed, and dietary fibre||Novel procedure, stable reagents|
|β-Glucan (Mixed linkage)||K-BGLU||Major cell-wall polysaccharide of barley and oats||Rapid reaction, stable reagents, only enzymatic kit available. AOAC Method 995.16; AACC Method 32-23.01; ICC Standard No. 166; RACI Standard Method|
|Citric Acid||K-CITR||Common food component / additive||Ideal for manual and auto-analyser applications|
|Ethanol||K-ETOH||Found in small amounts in many foods||Rapid reaction, stable reagents (AlDH supplied as a stable suspension)|
|Common component in many foods such as onions and seeds||Novel assays, rapid reaction, stable reagents; AOAC Method 999.03; AACC Method 32-32.01|
|D-Fructose / D-Glucose||K-FRUGL
|Very common food sugars, e.g. from high fructose corn syrup supplementation||Ideal for manual and auto-analyser applications. Stable reagents. Choice of spectrophotometric or simple colorimeter formats|
|D-Gluconic Acid||K-GATE||Food additive||Rapid reaction, stable reagents|
|Common food component, very important in certain situations, e.g. diabetic products||Choice of simple formats available, based either on glucose oxidase / peroxidase, or hexokinase / G-6-PDH|
|L-Glutamic Acid||K-GLUT||Common natural food component, e.g. in cheese and tomatoes, or added as a flavouring agent, e.g. as monosodium glutamate (MSG)||Diaphorase supplied as a stabilised suspension rather than a lyophilised powder, thus less wasted enzyme|
|Common food component, or added as a sweetener or to improve “mouth feel”||Novel tablet format offers superior stability, rapid reactions|
|Quality indicator of fruit and vegetable products||Rapid reaction, stable reagents|
|L-Lactic Acid||K-LATE||Quality indicator of fruit, vegetable and egg products||Rapid reaction, stable reagents. Ideal for manual and auto-analyser applications|
|Common processed food component, exact amount important in “lactose free” products||Very rapid reaction for K-LACGAR (~ 5 min even at room temperature), stable reagents|
|Maltose||K-MASUG||Common food component||Rapid reaction, stable reagents|
|Protein Digestibility||K-PDCAAS||The PDCAAS (ASAP-Quality Score) Method is a measure of protein quality||U.S. Pat. No. 9,738,920. Control samples included. ASAP-Quality Score offers: Animal free. High correlation to rat digestibility. Much less expensive than rat model. Faster turnaround time for results|
|Resistant Starch||K-RSTAR||Starch that is not digested in the small intestine of monogastric animals||Only kit available. Rapid and robust.
AOAC Method 2002.02; AACC Method 32-40.01
|Common food component||Choice of simple formats available, based either on glucose oxidase / peroxidase, or hexokinase / G-6-PDH|
|Aspartame, D-mannitol, D-sorbitol and xylitol are common sweeteners found in a variety of foods||1. K-ASPTM – novel method, only test kit available
2. K-MANOL – new method, only test kit available
3. K-SORB – diaphorase supplied as a stabilised suspension rather than a lyophilised powder, thus less wasted enzyme
|Total Dietary Fiber||K-TDFR
|Carbohydrate not digested in small intestine||1. K-TDFR: AOAC Methods 985.29, 991.42, 991.43 & 993.19; AACC Methods 32-05.01, 32-06.01, 32-07.01 & 32-21.01
2. K-INTDF is consistent with the CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber. AOAC Methods 2009.01 & 2011.25; AACC Methods 32-45.01 & 32-50.11
|Major food component||Rapid assay formats with options of measuring D-glucose with GOPOD reagent or with hexokinase / G-6-PDH. Stable reagents. AOAC Method 996.11; AACC Method 76-13.01; ICC Standard No. 168; RACI Standard Method|